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A Tale Of Two Takeovers Highlights Deal Dilemmas

May 8 2014, 3:31pm CDT | by

The mergers and acquisitions market has finally reopened after the financial crisis – but the nature of the deals that are emerging suggests that not all of this activity is based on sound business...

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11 weeks ago

A Tale Of Two Takeovers Highlights Deal Dilemmas

May 8 2014, 3:31pm CDT | by

The mergers and acquisitions market has finally reopened after the financial crisis – but the nature of the deals that are emerging suggests that not all of this activity is based on sound business reasoning.

According to Reuters, M&A activity in the first quarter was 54% higher than in the same period in 2013, at $710 billion. However, the number of deals is 14% lower, highlighting the fact that the market is being driven by a smaller number of bigger deals, including bid battles for Time Warner Cable (which Comcast bought for $70 billion after seeing off a rival bid from Charter Communications) and French telecoms group SFR (where Numericable saw off Bouygues to buy the mobile operator from Vivendi for €13.5 billion).

This trend for mega-deals has continued into the second quarter but has also taken on a trans-Atlantic element, with pharma giant Pfizer bidding for Anglo-Swedish rival AstraZeneca and GE seeking to buy its French counterpart Alstom – although the US company faces a counterbid from its German rival Siemens.

The Pfizer/AstraZeneca deal is the latest of a spate of healthcare bids, including a complex asset swap between GlaxoSmithKline and Novartis, and bids by Valeant for Allergan and by Actavis for Forest Laboratories.

According to KPMG’s 2014 M&A Outlook, the rebound in deals is the result of companies having large cash reserves and access to cheap credit, opportunities in emerging markets and an improvement to consumer confidence.

The cross-border deals illustrate, in part, the relative weakness of European companies scarred by the Eurozone crisis – GE’s bid for Alstom, in particular, seems like a good fit strategically.

But Pfizer’s bid strikes many as opportunistic, with a number of analysts saying it is motivated more by AstraZeneca’s UK listing, which would give Pfizer a 21% tax rate rather than the US’s 33% rate and make it easier for it to spend its foreign earnings, than by any strategic imperative. It is not alone – a number of US companies appear to be looking to buy foreign rivals using cash that they have sitting offshore rather than pay tax on it in the US. The ultimate expression of the weirdness of this situation was not actually a merger at all, but a share buyback by Apple.

Few commentators seemed to think it unusual that a company with approaching $200 billion of cash on its balance sheet – $150 million of it held abroad – should choose to raise a further $17 billion in a bond issue to help pay for an increase in its dividend payout and share buyback programme. In other words, one of the world’s richest companies borrowed money from one set of investors in order to give it to another. You can see why Apple did it – why wouldn’t you if you can get away with it – but on so many levels, it makes no sense.

American tax rules on earnings outside the US are not only costing the country billions of dollars in lost tax revenues but are also driving market activity whose main rationale is to avoid paying that tax. As we’ve seen with companies such as Starbucks and Amazon, there are reputational dangers to doing this for the companies involved – and it is surely only a matter of time before the US changes its rules.

GE’s bid for Alstom and Pfizer’s attempt to buy AstraZeneca highlight another risk – government interference in the bidding process. The French government guards its national champions jealously and there is a strong strand of anti-American sentiment in the current government that is reinforcing its natural reluctance to let foreigners buy French companies – the government once scuppered a takeover of yoghurt maker Danone by PepsiCo on the grounds that it was “strategic” to the French economy.

It has been reported that Siemens was encouraged to mount a counter-bid to GE’s offer by some pretty heavy prompting from French industry minister Arnaud Montebourg even though a Franco-German tie-up looks less logical from a business perspective.

Meanwhile, while the UK government started out being strongly supportive of Pfizer’s bid for AstraZeneca, the opposition Labour party has raised concerns about how beneficial the deal would be for the UK, mindful of the fact that Pfizer shut down a research facility three years ago with the loss of 1,000 jobs. The Swedish finance minister Anders Borg also spoke out about his country’s experience of dealing with Pfizer. This has forced the government to temper its enthusiasm and demand guarantees from the US company that it will maintain a research and development presence in the UK – guarantees that, ironically, could threaten AstraZeneca’s Swedish research facility.

There have long been suspicions that most mergers are more about empire-building, keeping bankers busy and boosting managers’ pay packets than about creating true business value and null . As the Economist pointed out last week, “optimists hope this is a sign of bosses daring to be bold because of improving economic prospects. Sceptics wonder if the managers are in fact doing deals to conceal a worrying lack of growth opportunities—or just cutting costs by merging with companies in kinder tax jurisdictions.”

 
Update
10

7 weeks ago

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Jun 9 2014 7:54am CDT | Source: Business Times Malaysia

KUALA LUMPUR: About RM47 million of contributions in the Teachers Provident Fund (KWSG) still remain unclaimed, the Dewan R ...
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Update
9

7 weeks ago

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Jun 9 2014 3:50am CDT | Source: Business Times Malaysia

KANGAR: A gold shop owner lost almost RM1 million after after the safe on in his shop was bro ...
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Update
8

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Update
7

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Jun 9 2014 2:11am CDT | Source: Business Times Malaysia

KUALA LUMPUR: Malaysia spent some RM27.6 million in its first phase of the search operations for missing Malaysia Airline flight MH370, said Acting Transport Minister ...
Source: Business Times Malaysia   Full article at: Business Times Malaysia
 

 
Update
6

7 weeks ago

9.1m litres of diesel seized in a month

Jun 8 2014 1:11am CDT | Source: Business Times Malaysia

PUTRAJAYA: The Domestic Trade, Cooperatives, and Consumerism ministry has seized some 9.1 million litres of diesel and property worth RM58 million since mounting ‘Operasi Diesel Selatan’ in the southern s ...
Source: Business Times Malaysia   Full article at: Business Times Malaysia
 

 
Update
5

7 weeks ago

Girl, 9, awarded RM2.78m compensation for medical negligence

Jun 6 2014 4:56am CDT | Source: Business Times Malaysia

KUALA LUMPUR: A nine-year-old girl who suffered brain damage during her birth at a government hospital was awarded over RM2.78 millio ...
Source: Business Times Malaysia   Full article at: Business Times Malaysia
 

 
Update
4

7 weeks ago

Malaysia's total trade in April up 12pc

Jun 5 2014 11:52pm CDT | Source: Business Times Malaysia

KUALA LUMPUR: Malaysia's total trade in April 2014 rose by 12 per cent from a year ago to RM123.86 billion due to growing trading activities, International Trade and Industry Minister Datuk Seri ...
Source: Business Times Malaysia   Full article at: Business Times Malaysia
 

 
Update
3

7 weeks ago

Works Ministry to spend RM20m for upgrading works at 50 accident black spots

Jun 4 2014 11:35pm CDT | Source: Business Times Malaysia

JOHOR BARU: The Works Ministry will implement upgrading works at 50 accident prone locations in the country that have been identified this year involving an allocation of RM20 mil ...
Source: Business Times Malaysia   Full article at: Business Times Malaysia
 

 
Update
2

7 weeks ago

Najib launches loan scheme for Ramadan traders

Jun 4 2014 10:24pm CDT | Source: Business Times Malaysia

PUTRAJAYA: Prime Minister Datuk Seri Najib Razak today launches RM45 million Ramadan Baza ...
Source: Business Times Malaysia   Full article at: Business Times Malaysia
 

 
Update
1

8 weeks ago

Residents bring up objection against Kidex to Suhakam

Jun 4 2014 4:49am CDT | Source: Business Times Malaysia

PETALING JAYA: A group of 20 Petaling Jaya residents held a meeting with the Human Rights Commission of Malaysia (Suhakam) over their objection against the proposed RM2.2 billion Kinrara Damansara Skyway (Kidex) today. ...
Source: Business Times Malaysia   Full article at: Business Times Malaysia
 

 

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